Base Group #2

Check-in Answers

Date / Question


April 29, 2015

Spring 2015 – Memorable moment(s)?


April 22, 2015

Spring fever?


April 15, 2015

Who has had more influence on your motivation, your family or peers?


April 8, 2015

Who/what has had more influence on your motivation: Your teachers (instructors, professors, etc.) or school(s)?


March 25, 2015

When do you experience flow?


March 18, 2015

What is something you do for purely intrinsic reasons? What is something you do for purely extrinsic reasons?


March 4, 2015

What are you looking forward to in the next few weeks?


February 25, 2015

Who (or what) helps you to regulate your goal attainment?


February 18, 2015

When do you feel smart? When you’re doing something perfectly and with little effort, or when you’re struggling and learning something new?


February 11, 2015

When you have failed to achieve a goal, have you ever resisted others' efforts to convince you that you can still succeed? Why did you react that way?


February 4, 2015

What are you good at that you truly value? What are you good at that you don't value very much?


January 28, 2015

Who has had a positive effect on your self-efficacy? How so?


January 21, 2015

Highlight during winter break?

James


One memorable experience was a trip down to Florida with my wife during which I presented at the national school psychology conference. I also recently attended a lecture by my favorite author Bob Goff, one of my personal role models.


In a few weeks, I will be at my family cottage on a pontoon boat, relaxing with my family. I will also be camping in Grand Haven and reading books for pleasure!


My family has had a greater influence on my motivation in school. Growing up, my parents were my strongest influence on my motivation, and today my wife is my most important source of motivation. My wife knows most about my academic endeavors, encourages me daily to persist in the face of hardship, and she is the person whom I want most to please by being successful.


My teachers and professors have had more influence on my motivation than my schools. My motivation has been affected by the specific feedback I've gotten from my teachers and professors more than from the larger school culture I have experienced.


When I am spending time with my wife, friends, or family, when I am doing activities I love like water sports or going for a boat ride on the lake, or when I am listening to beautiful and moving music.


A few years ago, I began volunteering at Compassionate Heart Ministry in Zeeland, MI, an after school program for teenagers and young adults with disabilities. Since that time, I have continued to mentor and spend time with my friends from Compassionate Heart for purely intrinsic reasons. Other activities I do for purely intrinsic reasons include prayer, reading the Bible, attending church services, and giving my time and financial resources to different charities I support.

I do many academic activities for purely extrinsic reasons, including reading assigned articles for class, completing exams and writing psycho-educational reports.


I am looking forward to spending the day with my wife on Monday with no other commitments or assignments or deadlines or papers or presentations or homework.


I find that my wife is the leading sources of regulation for me outside myself. I often discuss my academic and professional goals with my wife, and she helps me to make plans that will effectively meet those goals. She also helps me to determine whether my goals are realistic or whether I am setting goals that are too low or unrealistically high.


I feel smart when I am able to explain something complex to another person in ways they can understand.
I usually feel more smart when I am doing something perfectly with minimal effort, especially when it is something very difficult to most people. When I am struggling to learn something new, I do not feel very smart, particularly when others are able to learn it more quickly than me.


I often have this experience when I have large papers due. When I feel unprepared for writing a lengthy paper (i.e., haven't written an outline or prepared my notes for the paper), I can feel overwhelmed that I won't be able to complete it by the deadline. My wife always reminds me that I have had very few experiences where I failed a paper or didn't complete it on time, but I often resist and respond, "Well this time is different. This one is much harder, much longer, etc."


Personally, I view myself as a very loyal friend. I have a few special people in my life who mean a lot to me, and I am good at making time to show these people that I value them and care about them.
I am also very good at taking detailed, organized notes, but this is a skill I do not value very much.


One of our professors often reminds my classmates and me that "the best predictor of future success is past performance." When I am lacking confidence about my ability to succeed in my academic endeavors, this reminder helps me to increase my feelings of self-efficacy in a particular course or on a specific assignment. Relatedly, my wife often encourages me and helps me remember that I can succeed.


The highlight of my winter break was spending time with some of my friends from Compassionate Heart (Zeeland, MI).

Allie


Making it through a tough semester.


Driving with the windows down.


I think the answer to this question has changed over time. In high school and college, I was likely more motivated by my peers/peer groups. Now, my family - and very close friends who are practically family - are the primary influence.


This is a tough one! I would have to say... my teachers/professors. I've had a few fabulous teachers who pushed me to see challenging or "boring" topics in a totally different light. I definitely attribute my appreciation of the subject to their distinct teaching practices.


I don't believe I've ever experienced flow... possibly while meditating/praying or reading? Though these seem to relieve stress rather than induce happiness.


I think listening to music is definitely something I do for intrinsic reasons alone. I don't really have any agenda behind listening to music than to simply enjoy it and appreciate it. On the other hand, any household chore, like cleaning the dishes, I do for extrinsic reasons. I don't want to have a messy house so I force myself to do lots of chores that I do not necessarily enjoy!


Catching up on sleep over spring break. And hopefully warmer weather!


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I think I need both struggle + eventual success to "feel smart." That is, when I struggle to learn something new at first but eventually get to a point where it requires less effort, then I feel competent. I value a task more when it is difficult initially. That means its something worth learning! I enjoy exploring and finding effective strategies for success, and I feel "smart" when I can finally grasp a concept that once seemed totally foreign.


As mentioned before, I tend to have less confidence in my own abilities than others do. So even when I feel I can't do something, I find myself believing others' perceptions more than I believe my own. Rather than resisting, I am more easily persuaded by others, which can be good and bad at the same time!


While I know this is a skill that requires continual practice and improvement, I think I am pretty good at empathizing with others. I value the time and effort it takes to get to know another person. Hopefully, this is noticeable in the way I relate to others and share in their feelings.

I'm also really great at over-analyzing situations, whether they have occurred or will occur in the future. Reflection and planning are both great practices, but can be easily taken a step too far and cause me to worry more than I'd like!


Admittedly, I'm not the best at judging my own self-efficacy. I tend to weigh others' opinions more heavily than my own, so long as I trust them to provide honest and critical feedback. There have been a number of mentors and teachers who see more potential in me than I see in myself. Their confidence in my abilities encourages me to take risks and push myself farther than I could ever have imagined on my own. I can honestly say, I would not be here - pursuing this degree, achieving what I have achieved - without these key people correcting my own self-judgments.


Going to San Diego to visit my dad and not work on anything school-related!

Justina


Road-tripping out to NYC for my niece's birthday with my brothers and cousin.


Warm weather


My family, definitely. They have always been the supportive ones in my life.


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When I read a good book


Purely intrinsic: singing
Purely extrinsic: readings for classes I'm not all that fond of


I'm going to see two movies and a concert with my friend on Saturday!!


Most of my goal attainment is regarding getting schoolwork done, so actually being with classmates while trying to get work done holds me accountable. It's how I make sure I actually do the work.


More recently, learning something new has been more rewarding. However, when I was younger, I definitely felt smarter when my grades reflected it, so doing something perfectly and with little effort was preferable then.


I tell myself I won't procrastinate, but then I do. When people say it won't happen again, I just laugh because I know myself well enough to know that I will probably procrastinate the next time.


I am good at skimming and reading in general, which is something I value. I am good at procrastinating, which is definitely something I do not value.


I have constantly had people in my life, especially family, constantly supporting me and both saying and showing their faith in my abilities. Also, I come from an incredibly hard-working and high-achieving family, so watching them work helped me become motivated to work hard as well.


My cousin had her baby right before break ended.

Weekly Preparation

Class

Class Avg: 3.4

James

Personal Avg: 3.4

Allie

Personal Avg: 3.2

Justina

Personal Avg: 3.3

3 Things I Learned

Date


April 22, 2015

Sociocultural Influences


April 15, 2015

The Role of Family and Peers


April 8, 2015

The Role of Schools and Teachers


March 25, 2015

Interest and Flow


March 18, 2015

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation


March 4, 2015

Achievement Goal Theory


February 25, 2015

Self-Regulation


February 18, 2015

Theories of Intelligence & Ability Beliefs


February 11, 2015

Attribution Theory


February 4, 2015

Self-Concept and Self-Worth


January 28, 2015

Social Cognitive Theory


January 21, 2015

Expectancy-Value Models


January 14, 2015

Course Overview & History of Motivation

James


1) There are gaps in the connections between various theories.
2) Difference between effects with, of, and through.
3) Difficult to conceptualize and measure effects through technology.


1) As practitioners, we can examine motivation situations by asking whether the individual has goals, whether there is an achievement situation, whether there are established success and failure, whether there is learning, and whether there is value.
2) Perspectives on cultural differences in motivational constructs can be evaluated in terms of two dimensions: commonality and cultural boundary.
3) When literature shows unclear differences between cultural groups on certain motivational constructs (e.g., limited research on whether achievement goal differences exist between boys are girls), we can either conclude that no differences exist (absolute) or conclude that differences may be contained in a cultural context (relative).


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1) Intrinsic and extrinsic can be thought of as falling on a continuum based on an individual's level of autonomy and internalization of the value of a behavior.
2) Researchers seem to disagree as to whether higher levels of extrinsic motivation are problematic, or perhaps only if certain types of extrinsic motivation are problematic.
3) Research can sometimes create arbitrary groups when subjects are forced to pick one of two discrete responses, leading to false dichotomies that don't take the individual into account.


1) I learned how some of the cognitive, affective, motivational, and behavioral processes are interrelated with one another.
2) I learned how each of the four achievement goals contributes to cognition, affect, behavior, and academic performance.
3) I learned that the model we discussed today does not account how each of these factors contributes as an antecedent of the achievement goals, as goals were on the far left of the model.


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1) I learned that self-efficacy, self-concept, and self-esteem interact in a complex, reciprocal loop.
2) I learned that cognitive and affective factors influence each of these concepts distinctly.
3) I learned that similar factors impact each of the self-beliefs according to the various models we discussed.


1) There are important distinctions between the concepts of self-efficacy and academic self-concept.
2) Self-concept is thought of as somewhat malleable but much more stable that self-efficacy beliefs.
3) The relationship between self-concept and achievement seems to be reciprocal in nature, as little research has examined the causal direction of the relationship.


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1) Motivation constructs are very difficult for me to operationalize. After today, I feel like I use common terms like "learning," "achievement," "change," etc. without have a precise definition of what they mean.
2) It is difficult for me to differentiate a learning situation from a non-learning situation.
3) Before reading articles for this course, make sure I have a basic understanding of the general framework of the article.


1) I had naively assumed there was one generally agreed upon definition for motivation, rather than motivation
2) Before hearing about the history of motivation research, I had not considered how these paradigm shifts have impacted the current conceptualizations of motivation.
3) Generally speaking, I learned the importance of being specific and precise about the constructs I use when talking about motivation. I need to be aware of asking myself "What do I mean by that?"

Allie


1) Regardless of medium type, synchronous lessons are more effective than asynchronous classes.
2) There are different types of effects of/through/with technology. I've never heard of this argument!
3) My base group is awesome.


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1) Researchers who say they're measuring some construct (e.g., situational motivation) may not be truly representing it consistently.
2) Students with disabilities are capable of applying self-regulation and self-monitoring strategies.
3) I wasn't aware of how highly-regarded Jere Brophy was on the topic of motivation. I enjoyed his practical implications.


1) I have definitely heard of students' three basic needs -- autonomy, relatedness, competence -- but I guess I'd never realized how closely they are linked with intrinsic motivation from a theoretical standpoint.
2) I'd never seen a study use PCA (or at least refer to it as PCA) to study motivation.
3) I appreciated the Lepper and Henderlong article since it seemed to present multiple perspectives on the "extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation" debate in education. I think behaviorists would argue that extrinsic motivation isn't always "bad", though motivational theorists may tend to avoid extrinsic rewards and aim for intrinsic. This article seemed to show merit in both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, or even a combination of the two.


1) Even in the research, there may not be a clear definition of mastery-avoidance goal orientation.
2) Effort and persistence, as behavioral indicators in AGT, are very closely linked.
3) How the different orientations affect cognitive processes (and how this likely is a reciprocal relationship).


1) As I was at a conference in school psychology, I noticed how often people referred to self-efficacy. Many scholars are eager to find Tier 1 or Tier 2 interventions to promote self-efficacy and overall academic competence.
2) Many educators do seem to believe the idea that students can learn to shift to an incremental view of ability.
3) At this conference, school psychologists are looking at new ways to measure student self-beliefs like self-efficacy, self-worth, and self-concept.


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1) Integrating the various constructs of self-beliefs is not an easy task!
2) How conflicts of identity can influence choice and regret (Kristy's Research Report).
3) Attributions seem to be closely, but more indirectly, related to self-beliefs. Though I'm finding these relationships are more complicated than we might think.


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1) I learned that "learning" is difficult concept to describe!
2) A new way to effectively dissect a research article or article review.
3) I am more clear on situations where Expectancy-Value Theory applies and others that are not as applicable.


1) There are many ways to define the broad, theoretical construct of motivation -- more than I expected!
2) Current research uses a socio-cognitive lens to explore the construct of motivation.
3) That the socio-cognitive perspective encompasses many smaller theories as well.

Justina


1) Model creation is not a strength of mine.
2) The importance of using very specific language (the "with", "of", and "through" language)
3) The use of a robot technology piece is an interesting addition to the classroom.


1) The definitions to certain terms and answers to the questions that were asked regarding what motivation addresses.
2) There is research on how preschool girls behave differently when around other girls than when around boys, but boys behave the same regardless.
3) The two-by-two commonalities and contextual boundaries model


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1) The four different approaches and the processes in relation to the approaches (especially for affect)
2) A little bit more about what mastery-avoidance is and that not everybody agrees on this approach
3) That the chart on page 204 is very useful (from the Linnenbrink and Pintrich, 2000 article)


1) The structure and function of self-regulatory processes (forethought phase, performance phase, and self-reflection phase) and how this is similar to how we determine if an intervention is effective or not in the school psych world
2) That goal-setting is not always effective (as noted in Shih and Alexander's (2000) study
3) The impact teachers can have on teacher self-regulation skills to students.


1) Entity vs incremental beliefs, and where I probably stand now versus previously
2) How to try to enforce incremental beliefs
3) The ethnic concerns in regards to entity vs incremental beliefs


1) About an intervention for children with ASD
2) More as to what concepts are cognitive and what are affective
3) The elephant parable


1) The differences between the "selfs"
2) The cyclic nature between self-concept and achievement
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1) The importance of qualitative work and seeing individual's words.
2) The four sources of information that shape self-efficacy
3) How the four sources of information can build off of one another.


1) I learned that a lot of these terms are difficult to describe.
2) How to go about reading longer research articles.
3) Work, sports, and education tend to be the three main areas in which achievement is important.


1) Different dimensions of motivation
2) Four things that are unique to education
3) There are many different ways to define motivation

Remaining Question(s)

Date


April 22, 2015

Sociocultural Influences


April 15, 2015

The Role of Family and Peers


April 8, 2015

The Role of Schools and Teachers


March 25, 2015

Interest and Flow


March 18, 2015

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation


March 4, 2015

Achievement Goal Theory


February 25, 2015

Self-Regulation


February 18, 2015

Theories of Intelligence & Ability Beliefs


February 11, 2015

Attribution Theory


February 4, 2015

Self-Concept and Self-Worth


January 28, 2015

Social Cognitive Theory


January 21, 2015

Expectancy-Value Models


January 14, 2015

Course Overview & History of Motivation

James


Is there a comprehensive model like the one we made with our groups today that integrates many of the motivational models? What is the best model we currently have?


In terms of our discussion of the 7 questions, I still wonder when engaging in a behavior may not necessitate goals. Having more examples here would be helpful.


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What interventions exist to foster intrinsic motivation or help students internalize the value of academic tasks or positive behaviors in school? What are the practical implications of knowing whether a student has more intrinsic or extrinsic motivation in school?


I still don't understand how factors contribute to the development of each of the achievement goals. More importantly, I don't know the practical implications of how (if even possible) school practitioners can promote mastery approach goals.


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Is there evidence for a bi-directional relationship between each of the three concepts we discussed today (i.e., self-efficacy, self-concept, and self-esteem)? Or are some (e.g. self-efficacy and self-worth) so far apart in terms of specificity/stability that there is only an interact relationship between the constructs?


If self-concept is relatively stable and develops over long periods of time, what are practical strategies teachers can use to help a student with low academic self-concept?

Does the causal direction of the relationship between self-concept and achievement really matter, or would the practical outcome for educators be the same (i.e., target both as best you can)?

What does the term "motivation" mean in relation to self-concept and self-efficacy? Schunk and colleagues (2014) said, "younger students may be less able or motivated to integrate the different domains of their self-concept." Based on our working definition of "motivation," it doesn't make sense to me that a person could be "motivated to integrate their self-concept." Perhaps this word wasn't used very precisely here, but I was confused by the statement.


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Which activities in a school setting are considered achievement situations? Could most settings be viewed as competitive, evaluative, etc.? Or are only specific activities considered achievement situations?


I still don't understand what we mean by the "direction" of a behavior.

When we listed the 7 "contemporary motivation theories," I am wondering whether some of these various theories are mutually exclusive and which theories can be integrated.

Allie


Still unsure about how to measure effect THROUGH vs. effect WITH.


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We weren't able to get to the article on flow, but I was wondering if there is a clear distinction between removing stressors and adding happiness/joy? It seems as if these would appear very similar, and some of the practices that we might perceive as useful for promoting happiness could actually be due to a removal of some negative stressor (e.g., meditation, exercise, increased wealth in small quantities)?


I guess I'm wondering why amotivation is discussed so infrequently. Wouldn't this be a major focus within the field -- how to accurately identify students with no motivation and develop ways to support them or foster some change in motivational perspective? Is amotivation a widely-accepted construct across other models or is this something only Deci and Ryan propose in OIT?


How can goals have a direct relationship to behaviors/cognitions, removed from motivational or affective factors?

Can potentially negative implications from the performance-approach (on individual level) be buffered as well by strong social support? In other words, if my peers expect a lot from me/our group and I don't want to let them down, would this be less detrimental?


I'm still wrestling with how all of these pieces fit together and how they apply to other, less related theories or student motivation as individual concepts. I'm thinking clarity will come with time!


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Can a self-belief be only cognitive or only affective, or do most self-beliefs/appraisals have components of both?

We discussed how value moderate the relationship between self-concept and self-worth, but how are values formed? And are values shaped by past mastery experiences/successes?


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I'm still wondering why learning has to have to result in a change in behavior? Can this behavior be unintentional or unplanned or does it have to be deliberate to "prove" learning? Can there be any situation where learning occurs internally, relying solely on reflection?


None yet!

Justina


How would we measure "effects through technology"? Also, the differentiation between the with, of, and through still confuses me a bit.


How do we make sure methodology fits what specifically we are studying (like in the Taylor and Graham article; there were jumps between the connection of value and the importance of academic achievement to students).


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The strengths of performance-approach in schools (it was not fully covered in the discussion and most of the discussion supported mastery-approach)
How to go about doing a good study with these approaches (especially regarding the methods and procedures)


I'm sure I'll have some later, but I cannot think of any questions I may have right now.


Nothing really. At least not off the top of my head


How do you tease apart the different concepts and how do they fit together with each other? How does time relate to all of these concepts? How does attribution tie in with all of the concepts we used in the mapping assignment?


I still have trouble describing the difference between self-esteem and self-worth


N/A


How do we define these abstract terms in concise ways that are acceptable to everyone?


I still do not fully understand what direction is.
Some of the words that are used are not operationally and succinctly defined (this includes the term "direction")
While there are theories that we acknowledge as important because they are a part of history, which theories are the ones that are still relevant today?